Khethi Rakshak – A Machine 2 Machine (M2M) Communication device protects crops from wild animals and birds. The problem of wild animal attacks on crop fields i.e. crop vandalization is becoming a very common phenomenon in the state of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and many other states. Wild animals like Monkeys, Estray animals especially cows and Buffaloes, Wild Dogs, nilgais, Bisons, Elephants, Deer, Wild Pigs and even Birds like Parakeets cause a lot of damage to crops either by running over them or eating them and vandalizing them completely. This leads to poor yield of crops.
These animals attack on fruit orchards and destroy the flowerings and fruits. In both cases, this leads to significant financial loss to the farmers and orchard owners. The problem is so pronounced that sometimes farmers decide to leave the area barren due to these animal attacks.
It has been estimated that at minimum conservative average damage per household of ₹ 6,000, 15 million families could suffer a cumulative loss of ₹ 9,000 crore every year. This is a very huge amount to loose in a country like India. Khethi Rakshak system is very effective in driving-off the animals from the fields and keeping them away. The device automatically get switch on based on the system time or can be switched on manually using smart phone. With one time charging of the device for 4-6 hours the device works approx. 14 hours.
The device can be charged through 230Volts AC power or when there is no source of AC power to the farmer in the field can charge the device using 12V Solar panel. The device is equipped with Lithium-ion battery, with 14 hours of power backup with one charge. The device works on Single phase or three phase power.
The system is very adaptive to nature. We are using advanced machine 2 machine learning techniques in the system. Due to this, the system can be trained to release different spices of alarm/predatory/distress calls.
The advance system equipped with voice recorders that records local noises and send them to cloud server, we make use of these noises to customise the voice files there by the system makes it highly adaptable to the local sites of deployment. Thus the system is not limited to the detection of only particular type of animals. This makes it suitable for different areas of our country.
The device also comes with several alerts like Device ON/OFF, Auto switch from AC power to Solar, Low battery alerts, Box tampering alert, Power cut- off, Device theft alert, Shock alerts, Overheat alerts, Maintenance alerts etc.
The Indian Peafowl, national bird of India is also known as Common Peafowl or Blue Peafowl or Peacock, belongs to the family Phasianidae of class Aves. It is a large and brightly coloured bird. The Peacock (male) is predominantly blue with a fan like crest of spatula – tipped wire-like feathers and is best known for long train made up of elongated upper tail covert feathers which bear colourful eye-spots. These stiff and elongated feathers are raised into a fan, and quivered in a display during courtship. The female lacks the train, has greenish lower neck and has a duller brown plumage.
The Wildboar is one of the most widely distributed mammals belonging to the family Suidae of order Artiodactyla. It is distinctive in its sparser coat and fulier crest or mane of black bristles reaching from the nape down the back. The colour of the animal is black mixed with grey; rusty brown and white hairs. The young are browner and old boars are grayish in colour. Newborn wildboars are brown with light or black stripes. Tusks are well developed in case of adult males and are curved outwards.
Bluebull is a bovid commonly called Nilgai. It is Asia’s largest antelope and belongs to the family Bovidae of Order Artiodactyla. It is one of most commonly seen wild animals of central and Northern India. The adult bull has a coarse iron-grey coat, a white ring below each fetlock and two white spots in each cheek. Nilgai calves and cows are light brown in colour. Both sexes have dark manes and the male wear a distinctive tuft of stiff black hairs on the throat. The bulls have stout cone like horns.
Rhesus macaque is one of the most commonly known monkeys of India. The macaque is distinguished by their brown body, pink face bereft or fur. The head is disk-like and the hairs are erected towards back. They live equally well in forests as well as with humans, even accepting food.
Reflective ribbon is a polyester film with metallic shining coated with red on one side and silver on the other. It is prepared by cutting along continuous polyester sheet in to strips of 1.5cm width. Such stripes, preferably 15 to 20m long are fixed parallel in the crop field at 1foot above ground and at 3m intervals using bamboo poles and strings.
For better reflection, the ribbon should be fixed in north south direction. During sunshine, the reflection of sunlight and humming noise by ribbons in wind, scares the birds.
During sprouting of crop, fixing of jute rope around the crop with the help of pegs in 1m intervals and 1foot above ground tying the rope in the entire crop in checkered pattern forming squares of 1mx1m to prevent entry of Peafowl into the crop fields. This technique proved effective and reduced 98% damage. The cost involved in installing per acre will be Rs.600 (Rs.300 for jute rope + Rs.300 for labour).
During maturity stage of crop, fixing of jute rope one foot above the ground around in three rows using wooden pegs, prevents Peafowl damage all along the border rows. By using this technique, crops like wheat, paddy, short varieties of sunflower, groundnut, cotton, bhendi, tomato, brinjal and cabbage were effectively controlled Peafowl damage to the extent of 90%. The cost involved per acre will be Rs.450 (Rs.150 jute rope + Rs.300 labour).
Wildboar is one of the most widely distributed large mammals occurring in North Africa, Europe and Asia. Worldwide, there are 16 species of wildboars. Eurasian Wildboar (Sus Scrofa cristotus) occurs in India. In India, wildboars are distributed in almost the states. As per IUCN, wildboar is listed under ‘least concerned’ category, while is under schedule – III of Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. In recent years, the species has majorly indulged in raiding agricultural crops, and has become a major pest in agriculture. Wildboars are omnivorous. They live on crops, roots, tubers and carrion. Wildboars in general, moves in groups and their activity is more during early morning and evening hours, particularly active at dawn and dusk than in the actual day. They possess an unique ability of identifying cropped areas through their smell sensing.
Wildboar damages to various agricultural crops are heavy. The damage starts from sowing and seeding stage. The extent of damage ranges from 70-90% during sowing stage, compelling farmer to undertake repeat sowing. During pod setting or seed formation stage, wildboars inflict damage to an extent of 5-50% in different crops. During this stage, farmer is forced to lose the crop. Compensation by government is meagre to losses he undergoes. The values of crop losses are for individual fields and not for the particular crop or the entire state.
Wildboars are traditionally managed using barriers, olfactory repellents and masks, and articial sounds. The most promising modern technology available for near total protection of crops is bioacoustics.
Bioacoustics technology was developed by Gamyam Technologies Private Limited,Hyderabad.
The bioacoustics technology uses only natural sounds of predators, distress and alarm calls of target and closely related species of target animals. The calls are broadcast in a field by using an electronic platform with sound drives. Bioacoustics tries to convey the message ‘this area is dangerous’ to the target animals in their own language. On hearing the sounds, the target animals start avoiding the area, thus saving the crop from being damaged. The sounds are natural and safe on humans, birds and animals.
The equipment produces fixed volume of 110dB at source covering an area of 4-5 acres when ambient noise level is around 42 dB. At 37 dB of ambient noise, the equipment can cover up to 19 acres.
The equipment should be ideally installed when the animal damage is beginning. Bioacoustics is 92% effective in dispersing wildboar from the cropped area.
Works on commercial electricity and battery. Comes with device with inbuilt battery and a speaker.
Works on commercial electricity, battery and solar power. Comes with device with inbuilt battery solar panel, frame for solar panel, speaker fixing frames for device and speaker.
|Microcontroller||32 Bit Cortex M4 2 MB Flash; 512kB RAM|
|External Data Flash||1GB Memory|
|Power Supply||AC 230 V
Over Load Protection
Solar Voltage (12 - 15V)
Over Voltage Protection
11.1V / 13000mA Li-Ion Internal Battery
With Charging Mechanism
|Battery Back-Up||Internal Battery Back-Up: Minimum 12 Hours|
|GSM/GPRS Module||Quad-Band Supporting 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 MHZ
GPRS Multi-Slot Class 12
Supports TCP/UDP, PPP, FTP, HTTP; SMTP,
CMUX, MMS and SSL Protocols
High Sensitive: -109 @ 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 MHZ
Supports Jamming Detection
|Audio||Built-In Audio Amplifier Supporting 40W Output (20 + 20W)
Number Of Speakers: Two
Audio Files Storage: External Data Flash
Over The Air Audio Files Update: Supported
Random Play Of Audio Files: Supported
Configurable Audio Files Sequence: Supported
Remote Audio Volume Control: Supported
Remote Controlling Of Speakers: Supported
|SIM Connector||Micro SIM Connector supports 1.8V and 3.0V SIMs|
|GSM Antenna||Internal GSM Antenna Provision For External GSM Antenna|
|RS-232 Serial Port||Yes|
|External Interfaces||AC Power
Solar Input Voltage
Speaker - 1
Speaker - 2
|LED Indications||Main Power (AC Power)
|Mechanical Main Unit||Aluminium Enclosure 135 x 92 x 106 mm (L x W x H)|
|Features||External Data Flash to store audio files 32 Bit, Cortex M4 Microcontroller 125 MB (1GB) External Data Flash to store audio files Supports Two 20W Speakers Over The Air Audio Files Update Random Play Of Audio File Configurable Audio Files Sequence Remote Audio Volume Control Remote Controlling Of Speakers More than 12 hours internal battery back-up Box Open / Close Alert / Detection Alerts for Main Power & Low Battery Provides Location Of The equipment Remote Device Status Monitoring|
Fix the speaker box to the pole or tree as shown in the picture. Use rope or steel wire to secure the speaker box firmly on the surface.
Hang the device on the nails of fasten the device to pole using a rope. The height of the device box should be convenient for daily operations. There are two cables coming out from the device box.
(1) Cable with naked wire in the end – Use this cable to connect the device to AC power.
(2) Cable without naked wire in the end – Use this cable to connect speaker box.
Take the frame and fasten it on to a pole or tree or wooden post using steel wires or rope. Do not use middle frame to fasten. Use only top and bottom frames for fastening. There are two optional nailing holes which can be used to nail the entire frame on to a post/pole.
Take L-bend fasten it on to the top portion of frame using nuts and bolts supplied along with the equipment.
Fix the panel frames (two) on the L-bend frame using nuts and bolts supplied along with the equipment, Make sure that they are parallel.
Fix the solar panel on the solar panel frame. Secure the panel by fixing nuts and bolts supplied with the equipment.
Fix the speaker box to the middle frame as shown in the picture. Do not fix the speaker box on the lower frame. The solar panel above the speaker provides additional protection from weather elements.
Hang the device on the nails or fasten the device using rope on to a pole at a convenient height of operation. There are three wires coming out from the device box.
(1) Cable with ferrules marked S & P indicating solar panel. Connect this wire to solar panel wire.
(2) Cable with naked wire in the end. Use this wire to connect the device to AC power. (3) Cable without ferrules. Connect this cable to speaker box
Bioacoustical equipment was installed in Odisha, Karnataka, Telangana states at farmer’s fields Agricultural Research institutes, plagued by wildboar menace. The technology was tested in many crops including short and long duration one viz., Sugarcane, Maize, Groundnut, Sorghum, Rice, Vegetables, and Banana.
Village : Khazipur, Medak, Telangana state
Grows : Ridge gourd and maize
Damage by wildboar : 21% before installation
Bioacoustics operating since: 2 months.
Farmer Shri Laxman of Khazipur had wildboar emance in his three acre ridge gourd field and two and half acres of maize field. In one night, wildboar damaged almost 21% of his ridge gourd field.
Bioacoustic equipment was installed at his field on 02-Aug-2015
" My field is now completely protected from wildboar damage. After installing this equipment, even my neighbours are also reaping the benefit. Wildboards are not coming to our area for the post two months. We expect to harvest a good crop " – Laxman.
Village : Raghavpur, Rangareddy, Telangana State
Grows : Maize
Damage by wildboar : 15% before installation
Bioacoustics operating since: 2 months.
Farmer Shri Bal Reddy of Raghavpur village kept a constant night guard to protect his maize, but despite it, the wildboars damaged the field. He was unable to invest on other traditional methods of wildboar management except keeping a night vigil.
Bioacoustic equipment was installed at his field on 26-Aug-2015
" I am happy about bioacoustics equipment. It has literally freed me from the burden of keeping a constant vigil in the night. Now I don’t have to patrol my crops every night" – Bal Reddy
6th Floor 603, Lake Melody Towers, Rajbhavan Road
500082, Telangana, India
78.4614° E, 17.4241° N
(+91) 98490 67444, (+91) 98492 03867